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Date Updated: September 27, 2012
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Most of the Observational Assessment team's research has focused on the Assessment of Professional Behaviors. Development of the APB Program began in 2001, when the NBME Membership identified the assessment of professional behaviors as a priority. Advances in the science of assessment made such a development possible, while heightened attention to professionalism created a receptive environment within the medical profession. Since then, NBME has conducted multiple field trials and continues to do research to ensure a program that encourages thoughtful reflection and dialogue about professional behaviors at individual, departmental, and institutional levels. To read more about the developmental activities from 2002 to 2011 click here.


Richmond M, Canavan C, Holtman MC, Katsufrakis PJ. Feasibility of implementing a standardized multisource feedback program in the graduate medical education environment. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. December 2011, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 511-516

Canavan C, Holtman MC, Richmond M, Katsufrakis PJ. The quality of written comments on professional behaviors in a developmental multisource feedback program. Academic Medicine 2010 85:S106-S109

Clauser BE, Margolis MJ, Holtman MC, Katsufrakis PJ, Hawkins RE. Validity considerations in the assessment of professionalism. Advances in Health Sciences Education 2012, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 165-181

Holtman MC. Paradoxes of professionalism and error in complex systems. Journal of Biomedical Informatics available online 9 August 2009

Hawkins RE, Katsufrakis PJ, Holtman MC, Clauser BE. Assessment of medical professionalism: who, what, when, where, how, and . . . why? Medical Teacher 2009 31:385–398

Holtman MC. A theoretical sketch of medical professionalism as a normative complex. Advances in Health Sciences Education 2008 13(2):233-245

Mazor KM, Canavan C, Farrell M, Margolis MJ, Clauser BE. Collecting validity evidence for an assessment of professionalism: findings from think-aloud interviews. Academic Medicine 2008 83:S9-12

Stark R, Korenstein D, Karani R. Impact of a 360-degree professionalism assessment on faculty comfort and skills in feedback delivery. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2008 23(7):969–972

Mazor KM, Clauser BE, Holtman MC, Margolis MJ. Evaluation of missing data in an assessment of professional behaviors. Academic Medicine 2007 82:S44-S47

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