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Date Updated: May 29, 2018

Staff Publications 1923-Present

NBME® staff publications contribute to the body of scholarship on assessment, explore emerging test constructs, and demonstrate the continuous reliability and validity of existing examinations. The following list of NBME publications highlights the body of work produced by staff. We hope you enjoy exploring these scholarly contributions.

Please contact the Office of Research at ors@nbme.org if you would like more information about a publication.

Simulations, Psychometrics, and Standard Setting: 2000s to present
Articles on the assessment of professionalism, as well as the use of multisource feedback–type assessments, appeared into the 2010s, while more recent efforts focused on setting performance standards.

Simulations, Psychometrics, and Standard Setting: 2000s to present
In the first decade of the 2000s, researchers published on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), on refinements to computerized case simulations, and on new statistical methods to improve exam scoring.

Back to the Bedside: 1990s
Articles on the use of standardized patients in assessment were common in the 1990s, and the focus of publications turned to the clinical skills important to the practice of clinical medicine, as well as new methods for directly evaluating those constructs in authentic ways. Indeed, it seemed that testing circled back to the skills that had been assessed with the bedside oral exam.

Leaning into Technology: 1980s
In the mid-1980s, staff moved toward writing advanced psychometric and measurement theory publications. NBME staff addressed computer-based testing with research and publications on the use of computers, not only to administer traditional multiple-choice tests, but also on the application of artificial intelligence and expert systems to assess the clinical reasoning of medical students.

Leaning into Technology: 1970s
In the 1970s, staff continued to author materials on topics such as clinical medicine and the role of the NBME in the medical landscape; staff writing expanded to include new NBME exams for various health professionals (ie, pediatricians, physician assistants) and post-licensure assessment. A noteworthy and well-referenced book, Measuring Medical Education: The Tests and the Experience of the National Board of Medical Examiners, by John Perry Hubbard and Charles Frederick Schumacher, was published in 1971, with a second edition in 1978.

NBME Hits Its Stride: 1960s
In the 1960s, more publications began to focus on graduate medical education. John P. Hubbard, MD, (president of the NBME from 1949 to 1974) and Edithe J. Levit, MD, (president from 1977 to 1986) were prolific authors. Additional works appeared on evolving testing modalities, and the staff wrote about new NBME offerings such as mini tests and in-training exams.

The Formative Years: 1920s to 1950s
Between the 1920s and the 1940s, staff publications focused on establishing the value of NBME examinations, explaining how the content of the exams was chosen and why the assessments were useful. The bedside oral examination was a common assessment at that time. In the 1950s, staff members began publishing in a wider variety of journals. Staff physicians wrote books and articles on the latest developments in clinical medicine.

1920s
Elwood ES. National Board of Medical Examiners changes title of certificate holders. Federation Bulletin. 1923;9:133-136.
Rodman JS. National Board of Medical Examiners. JAMA. 1924;82:814-815.
Elwood ES. State board and National Board relations. Federation Bulletin. 1932;18:117-124.
Rodman JS, Elwood ES. Comments on National Board examinations. Federation Bulletin. 1936;22:196-204.
Gross RE, Hubbard JP. Surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus: report of the first successful case. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1939;112:729-731.
Elwood ES. The National Board of Medical Examiners as related to medical licensure. Federation Bulletin. 1941;27:324-332.
Rodman JS. Part III of the National Board of Medical Examiners - its character and purpose. Federation Bulletin. 1946;32.
Hubbard JP. The role of the teaching hospital in child care: demands in pediatric education. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1949;24:373-378.
Hubbard JP. Training the general practitioner for his job in public health. Pennsylvania Medical Journal. 1951;54:1139-1143.
Hubbard JP. Why National Board examinations? Journal of the Student American Medical Association. 1952;April.
Hubbard JP, Cowles JT. A comparative study of essay and objective examinations for medical students. Journal of Medical Education. 1952;29.
Hubbard JP, Mitchell AM, Poole ML, Rogers AM. The family in the training of medical students. Journal of Medical Education. 1952;27(1):10-18.
Hubbard JP. The National Board of Medical Examiners. Journal of Medical Education. 1953;28(1):85.
Hubbard JP. Observation of the family in the home. Journal of Medical Education. 1953;28(7):26-30.
Cowles JT, Hubbard JP. Validity and reliability of the new objective tests. Journal of Medical Education. 1954;29(6):30-34.
Hubbard JP, Cowles JT. Comparative study of student performance in medical schools using National Board examinations. Journal of Medical Education. 1954;29:27-37.
Hubbard JP. The inside story of your family's health. Public Health News. 1955;36(10).
Hubbard JP. New methods of examining in medicine. Journal of the Indian Medical Profession. 1955(2):7.
Hubbard JP. Prevention of first-attack rheumatic fever. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1955;43:504-510.
Hubbard JP, Clark DW. Preventive medicine and the Colorado Springs Conference. Journal of Medical Education. 1956;31:151-156.
Levit EJ, Nodine JH, Perloff WH. Progesterone-induced porphyria. American Journal of Medicine. 1957;22:831-833.
Cornfeld D, Hubbard JP, Werner G, Weaver R. Streptococcal infection in a school population: preliminary report. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1958;49:1305-1319.
Werner G, Cornfeld D, Hubbard JP, Rake G. Study of Streptococcal infection in a school population: laboratory methodology. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1958;49:1320-1330.
Hubbard JP. Medical examinations around the world. Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin. 1959.
Elsom KA, Hubbard JP, Schor S, Clark TW. Periodic health examination: nature and distribution of newly discovered disease in executives. JAMA. 1960;172:5-10.
Hubbard JP. Practices and pitfalls in the early detection and control of heart disease in children. Journal of Pediatrics. 1960;56:544-550.
Hubbard JP. Teaching of preventive medicine reflected by results of National Board examinations. Journal of Medical Education. 1960;35:644-651.
Hubbard JP, Clemens WV. Comparative evaluation of medical schools. Journal of Medical Education. 1960;35(2):134-141.
Schumacher CF. Studies of MCAT as a predictor of medical school achievement. The Scalpel of the Alpha Epsilon Delta. 1960;Winter(46-51).
Cornfeld D, Hubbard JP. Four-year study of the occurrence of beta-hemolytic streptococci in 64 school children. New England Journal of Medicine. 1961;264:211-215.
Cornfeld D, Hubbard JP, Harris TN. Epidemiologic studies of streptococcal infection in school children. American Journal of Public Health. 1961;51:242-249.
Schumacher CF. The 1960 medical school graduate. Journal of Medical Education. 1961;36:398-406.
Richardson FM, Clemens WV, Ludwug GD, Hubbard JP. The Delaware medical seminars experiment. GP. 1962;25:165-173.
Hubbard JP. Programmed testing in the examinations of the National Board of Medical Examiners. In: Invitational Conference on Testing Problems. Princeton NJ: Educational Testing Service; 1963:49-63.
Hubbard JP. Walter L. Bierring, MD and the National Board of Medical Examiners. The Journal-Lancet. 1963;83:474-478.
Levit EJ, Schumacher CF, Hubbard JP. Effect of characteristics of hospitals in relation to the caliber of interns obtained and the competence of interns after one year of training. Journal of Medical Education. 1963;38:909-919.
Schumacher CF. Interest and personality factors as related to choice of a medical career. Journal of Medical Education. 1963;38:932-942.
Levit EJ, Schumacher CF, Hubbard JP. The internship - an evaluation of input and output. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1964;189:299-305.
Schumacher CF. Factor-analytic study of various criteria of medical school accomplishment. Journal of Medical Education. 1964;39:192-196.
Schumacher CF. Personal characteristics of students choosing different types of medical careers. Journal of Medical Education. 1964;39:278-288.
Hubbard JP. The present position of the National Board of Medical Examiners. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1965;192:132-136.
Hubbard JP, Levit EJ, Schumacher CF, Schnabel TG. Objective evaluation of clinical competence: new techniques used by the National Board of Medical Examiners. New England Journal of Medicine. 1965;272:1321-1318.
Templeton B. Two brothers, identical twins discordant for chronic imprisonment. Diseases of the Nervous System. 1966;7(suppl 7):5-10.
Hubbard JP, Furlow LT, Matson DD. An in-training examination for residents as a guide to learning. New England Journal of Medicine. 1967;276:448-451.
Levit EJ. Comments regarding further study of graduate training in neurosurgery. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1967;27:385-387.
Levit EJ. Use of the National Board "minitest" for evaluation of curriculum change. Journal of Medical Education. 1967;42:930-934.
Levit EJ. The use of motion pictures in testing the clinical competence of physicians. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1967;142:449-54.
Saunders RH. Use of a special examination designed with specific reference to curriculum content. Journal of Medical Education. 1967;42:935-937.
Baue AE, Schumacher CF, Welch JS, Hubbard JP. Special report: In-training evaluation of surgical residents. Journal of Surgical Research. 1968;8:341-344.
Hubbard JP. Additional methods of testing fitness to practice. Federation Bulletin. 1968;55:151-159.
Hubbard JP. Uniformity of qualifications for medical practices and states' rights. Federation Bulletin. 1968;55:2-10.
Hubbard JP. Role of the National Board of Medical Examiners. Alabama Journal of Medical Sciences. 1968;5:441-445.
Hubbard JP. The Federation Licensing Examination and the testing of clinical competence. Federation Bulletin. 1968;55:151-159.
Levit EJ. The use of motion pictures in evaluation of fitness to practice. Federation Bulletin. 1968;55:142-150.
Schumacher CF. Scoring, analysis and reporting. Federation Bulletin. 1968;55:160-165.
Dubois AB, Memir P, Schumacher CF, Hubbard JP. Graduate medical school education in basic sciences. Journal of Medical Education. 1969;44:1035-1043.
Levit EJ. Evaluation of learning in graduate education. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1969;30:348-352.
Levit EJ. In-training evaluation of learning: objective measurement of the product and process of graduate medical education. Archives of Dermatology. 1969;99:342-349.
Levit EJ. Testing physicians with motion pictures. Industrial Photography. 1969:21-22, 61-65.
Hubbard JP, Levit EJ, Barnett O, Goldfinger SE, Dineen J. Computer-based evaluation of clinical competence. The Bulletin. 1970:502-505.
Kelley PR, Stumpe AR, Levit EJ. Four-year study of the internship in the United States Air Force hospitals: an objective measurement of gain in clinical competence. Military Medicine. 1970;135:537-545.
Hubbard JP. Self-assessment programs: summation of objectives. Federation Bulletin. 1971;58:69-75.
Hubbard JP. Self-education and self-assessment as a new method for continuing medical education. Archives of Surgery. 1971;103:422-424.
Hubbard JP. To change or not to change: a dilemma for the National Board of Medical Examiners. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1971;217:1698.
Kelley PR. The numbers game. Federation Bulletin. 1971;58:233-240.
Kelley PR, Matthews JH, Schumacher CF. Analysis of the oral examination of the American Board of Anesthesiology. Journal of Medical Education. 1971;46:982-988.
Levit EJ. Problems in the evaluation of graduate medical education. In: Gilbert JAL, ed. Proceedings of Conference on Evaluation in Medical Education. Edmonton, AB; 1971:111-120.
Schumacher CF. How to tell one figure from another or when is 75 not 75 per cent. Federation Bulletin. 1971;58:221-232.
Andrew BJ. An approach to the construction of simulated exercise in clinical problem-solving. Journal of Medical Education. 1972;47:952-958.
Burg FD, Wright FH. 1971 pretest of the American Board of Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 1972;50:462-465.
Burg FD, Wright FH. Evaluation of pediatric residents and their training programs. Journal of Pediatrics. 1972;80:183-189.
Kelley PR, Sutnick AI, Knapp D. The English language and the FMG. Journal of Medical Education. 1972;47:434-439.
Senior J, Jones NA, Olafson RP, Sutin J. Evaluation of clinical competence: the crux of FLEX. Federation Bulletin. 1972;59:303-329.
Andrew BJ. National examination program for the certification of physician's assistants. Federation Bulletin. 1973;60:189-196.
Andrew BJ. Technique for the assessment of pharmacy students' skills in patient interviewing. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 1973;37:290-299.
Hubbard JP. Evaluation, certification and licensure in medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1973;225:401-406.
Hubbard JP. The future of medical education and its implication for psychiatry. In: Usdin G, ed. Psychiatry: Education and Image. New York: Brunner/Masel, Inc; 1973:105-131.
Levit EJ. A national program for certification of assistants to primary care physicians. In: Lippard VW, Purcell EF, ed. Intermediate-level Health Practitioners. Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation; 1973:170-179.
Schumacher CF. Validation of the American Board of Internal Medicine written examination: a study of the examination as a measure of achievement in GME. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1973;78:131-135.
Andrew BJ. The evaluation of physical examination skills: techniques for direct observation and their reliability. Proceedings of Thirteenth Annual Conference on Research in Medical Education Research. 1974:30-35.
Andrew BJ. A Methodology for the Development of Examinations to Assess the Proficiency of Health Care Professionals. Philadelphia PA: NBME; 1974.
Andrew BJ. First national certifying examination for primary care physician's assistants. Federation Bulletin. 1974;61:298-303.
Andrew BJ. What spells success in PA test - practical experience proves the answer in first certifying exam. Medical World News. 1974(April).
Burg FD. Foundation for Evaluating the Competency of Pediatricians. Chicago IL: American Board of Pediatrics; 1974.
Carmichael H, Templeton B, Small S, Kelley PR. Results of the 1972 APA self-assessment program. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1974;131:658-661.
Erviti VF, Gordon D, Suvanich S, Schwartz M, Martinez C. The serum calcium level and its significance in hyperthyroidism. American Journal of Medical Science. 1974;268:31-36.
Erviti VF, Scott M. Research design and statistics in an undergraduate physical therapy curriculum. Physical Therapy. 1974;54:256-259.
Guerin RO, Doran R. An analysis of several instruments measuring "nature of science" objectives. Science Education. 1974;58:321-329.
Guerin RO, Doran R, Cavaleri J. Assessment of awareness of environmental problems. Journal of Environmental Science. 1974;5:14-18.
Guerin RO, Doran R, Sarnowski A. The effect of perceptual preference of students on their performance on pictoral test items. Science Education. 1974;58:161-169.
Hubbard JP. Proposals for changes in National Board examinations. The Physiologist. 1974;17:149-154.
Levit EJ, Sabshin C, Mueller C. Trends in graduate medical education and specialty certification: a tracking study of U.S. medical school graduates. New England Journal of Medicine. 1974;290:545-549.
McGehee E, Levit EJ, Clark J, Coppola E, Gonnella J. The Philadelphia County Medical Society self-evaluation examination. Journal of Medical Education. 1974;49:993-994.
Samph T. Teacher behavior and the reading performance of below-average achievers. Journal of Educational Research. 1974;67:268-270.
Samph T. Open education students in transition. Elementary School Journal. 1974;75:37-41.
Samph T, Sayles F. A validation study of RACE (Racial Attitude and Cultural Expression). Final Report. Washington DC: US Department of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute of Education; 1974.
Schumacher CF. A comparative study of four methods for scoring experimental computer-based examination for clinical problem solving. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference on Research in Medical Education. Chicago IL: Association of American Medical Colleges; 1974:8-13.
Templeton B. Multiple-choice testing in psychiatry. In: Muslin H, Thurnblad R, Templeton B, McGuire C, eds. Evaluative Methods in Psychiatry. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1974.
Templeton B. Evaluating the quality of care. In: Muslin H, Thurnblad R, Templeton B, McGuire C, eds. Evaluative Methods in Psychiatry. Washington DC:: American Psychiatric Association; 1974.
Templeton B, Harless W. The potential of computer-based simulation of the clinical encounter (CASE) for evaluation of undergraduate psychiatric education. In: Muslin H, Thurnblad R, Templeton B, McGuire C, eds. Evaluative Methods in Psychiatry. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1974.
Templeton B, Hubbard JP. The future of medical education and its implication for psychiatry. In: Usdin G, ed. Psychiatry: Education and Image. New York: Brunner/Mazel; 1974.
Andrew BJ. The effects of patient simulations on actors. Journal of Medical Education. 1975;50:87-89.
Andrew BJ. Interviewing and counseling skills: techniques for their evaluation. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1975;66:576-580.
Andrew BJ, Glazer D. Physician's assistant certifying examination [letter]. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1975;234:1118.
Bell AI, Mayer S. Sexism in ratings of personality traits. Personnel Psychology. 1975;28:239-249.
Burg FD. Planning a competency-based approach to recertification. Federation Bulletin. 1975;62:280-289.
Burg FD, Schumacher CF. Computerization of a patient management problem examination to prevent "retracing.". British Journal of Medical Education. 1975;9:281-285.
Chase RA ed. Surgery in the United States. A Summary of the Study on Surgical Services for the United States. Chicago, IL: American College of Surgeons and American Surgical Association; 1975.
Dustan H, Blumenthal S, Templeton B. Education of physicians in high blood pressure, performance characteristics, learning objectives and evaluation approaches. Circulation. 1975;51:9-27.
Guerin RO. A quasi-simplex analysis of a Piaget-based hierarchy. Science Education. 1975;59:273-281.
Hubbard JP. Objective evaluation of medical education. Journal of the Irish College of Physicians and Surgeons. 1975;5(1).
Levit EJ. The role of graduate training programs in assessing physician competence from the licensure and certification point of view. In: The Role of the Pediatric Program Director in Board Certification. Philadelphia, PA: American Board of Pediatrics; 1975:19-28.
Schumacher CF, Burg FD, Taylor WC. Computerization of a patient management problem examination to prevent "retracing.". British Journal of Medical Education. 1975;9:218-285.
Smith DE. Evaluation in the continuum of medical education: the role of examinations. AHME Journal. 1975;8:8-12.
Smith DE. Recertification for the medical specialist. Federation Bulletin. 1975;62:361-369.
Waddell W, Kelley PR, Suter E, Levit EJ. Effectiveness of an international health elective as measured by NBME Part II. Journal of Medical Education. 1975;51:468-472.
Andrew BJ, Hecht JT. A preliminary investigation of two procedures for setting examination standards. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1976;36:45-50.
Burg FD. Continuing education and recertification: a critical link. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 1976;13:323-327.
Burg FD, Brownlee R, Wright F, Levine H, Daeschner C, Vaughan V, Anderson J. A method and process for defining competency in pediatrics. Journal of Medical Education. 1976;51:824-828.
Chase RA. The National Board of Medical Examiners. In: Purcell E, ed. Recent Trends in Medical Education. New York, NY: Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation; 1976:225-241.
Chase RA. Proliferation of certification in medical specialties: productive or counterproductive? New England Journal of Medicine. 1976;294:497-499.
Dowaliby FJ. Rater-ratee relationships as related to rater confidence for different domains of competence. Research in Medical Education. 1976:103-107.
Dowaliby FJ, Andrews BJ. Relationship between clinical competence ratings and examination performance. Journal of Medical Education. 1976;51:181-188.
Erviti VF, Bermes E, Forman D. Statistics, normal values and quality control. In: Tietz N, ed. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. Philadelphia PA: Saunders; 1976.
Guerin RO, Smilansky J. The accuracy of absolute minimal acceptable performance levels for multiple-choice examinations. Journal of Medical Education. 1976;51:416-417.
Ludwig H, Noe J, Chase RA. Interactive data analysis. Computers & Industrial Engineering. 1976;1:47-56.
Samph T. Observer effects on teacher verbal classroom behavior. Educational Psychology. 1976;68:736-741.
Samph T, Brodner B, Richman J. Health Systems Agencies Public Accountability Checklist. Washington DC: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare; 1976.
Templeton B. Recertification: A Look at the Issues. Task Force on Recertification, Report No. 76. New York: Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry; 1976.
Templeton B. Medical accountability and medical education. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 1976;88:525-527.
Templeton B, Erviti VF, Bunce JV, Burg FD. Training medical record abstractors to assure high inter-rater reliability. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Research in Medical Education Research. 1976:108-113.
Andrew BJ. The use of behavioral checklists to evaluate physical examination skills. Journal of Medical Education. 1977;52:589-591.
Andrew BJ, Miller RE. View Box exercises for teaching problem solving. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1977:271-272.
Bowler FL, Brading PL, Burg FD, Finestone AL, Hubbard JP. A practice related educational program. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1977;237:1346-1349.
Brading PL, Bowler FL, Burg FD, Finestone AJ. A practice-related educational program. JAMA. 1977;237:1346-1349.
Burri AT, Schumacher CF, Vorkauf H. Feasibility of using an American national board examination for the evaluating of Swiss candidates for licensure. Medical Education. 1977;11:276-284.
Chase RA. What to do about the incompetent physicians. Federation Bulletin. 1977;64:163-179.
Chase RA, Burg FD. Reexamination/recertification. Measurement of professional competence and relation to quality of medical care. Archives of Surgery. 1977;112:19-25.
Dowaliby FJ. The effect of certain rater roles on confidence in physician's assistant ratings. Journal of Medical Education. 1977;52:914-919.
Erviti VF. Development of a medical record audit for continuing medical education. Research in Medical Education. 1977;16:85-90.
Merchant FT, Kelley PR. Performance of current graduates of United States medical schools on FLEX. Federation Bulletin. 1977;64:340-352.
Miller RE, Andrew BJ. View box exercises for teaching problem solving in radiology. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1977;128:271-272.
Templeton B. Medical audits and recertification: prospects and problems. Federation Bulletin. 1977;64:293-304.
Templeton B, Erviti VF, Bunce JV, Burg FD. Pediatric residents: assessing their performance via chart audit. Resident and Staff Physician. 1977.
Burg FD, Schumacher CF. Objective tests as measures for medical certification. Federation Bulletin. 1978;65:331-339.
Holden WD, Levit EJ. Migration of physicians from one specialty to another: a longitudinal study of U.S. medical school graduates. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1978;239:205-209.
Hubbard JP. Measuring Medical Education: The Tests and the Experience of the National Board of Medical Examiners. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1978.
Hubbard JP. The five hundred year Jubilee celebration - the University of Uppsala and profiled continuing education. Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians. 1978;45:185-195.
Hubbard JP. Profiled continuing education. Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. 1978(45):190-195.
Levit EJ, Holden WD. Specialty board certification rates: a longitudinal tracking study of U.S. medical school graduates. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1978;239:407-412.
Schumacher CF. The effect of open vs. closed book testing on performance on a multiple-choice examination in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 1978;61:256-261.
Vaughan VC. Effect of maternal sedation on mother-infant bonding. In: Kumar S, Rathi M, ed. Perinatal Medicine. New York, NY: Pergamon Press; 1978.
Weinberg E, Bell AI. Performance of United States citizens with foreign medical education on standardized medical examinations. New England Journal of Medicine. 1978;299:858-862.
Willian MK, Weinberg E, Burnett RD, Olsted RW. The pediatric nurse associate - a model of collaboration between medicine and nursing. New England Journal of Medicine. 1978;298:740-741.
Brazelton TB, Vaughen VC. The Family: Setting Priorities. New York, NY: Science and Medicine Publishers; 1979.
Burg FD, Grosse ME, Kay CT. A national self-assessment program in internal medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1979;90:100-107.
Hubbard JP, Ball MJ, Burg FD. Hospital information systems: from the perspective of continuing medical education and individual assessment of physician performance. In: Shannon RH, ed. Hospital Information Systems: An International Perspective on Problems and Prospects. Amsterdam, Holland: North-Holland Publishing Company; 1979:341-374.
Levit EJ. Boards, cover art and ethics [letter]. The New Physician. 1979;28(6).
Samph T, Templeton B. Evaluation in Medical Education: Past, Present, Future. Cambridge MA: Ballinger; 1979.
Templeton B. The National Board of Medical Examiners and independent assessment agencies. In: Samph T, Templeton B, ed. Evaluation in Medical Education: Past, Present, Future. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger; 1979.
Templeton B. Forecasts for evaluation in medical education. In: Samph T, Templeton B, ed. Evaluation in Medical Education: Past, Present, Future. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger; 1979.
Vaughan V, McKay RJ, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia PA: WB Saunders, Inc; 1979.
Vaughan VC. The patient management problems as an evaluative instrument. Pediatrics in Review. 1979;1:67-76.
Andrew BJ. Customized examinations from the National Board. Trends in Medical Education. 1980;24(1):1-2.
Andrew BJ. Can professional competence be measured? New Directions For Program Evaluation. 1980;6:39-52.
Burg FD. Objectives of recertification. Continuing Medical Education Newsletter. 1980;9(2):5-11.
Downing SM. Assessment of clinical competence on the emergency medicine specialty certification examination. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1980;9:554-556.
Erviti VF, Templeton B, Bunce JV, Burg FD. The relationships of pediatric resident recording behavior across medical conditions. Medical Care. 1980;18:1020-1031.
Fabrey LJ, Tjosvold D, Johnson DW. Effects of controversy and defensiveness on cognitive perspective taking. Psychological Reports. 1980;47:1043-1053.
Holden WD, Levit EJ. Medical education, licensure and the National Board of Medical Examiners. New England Journal of Medicine. 1980;303:1357-1360.
Hubbard JP. Reminiscences and reflections. Medical Teacher. 1980;2:279-283.
Levit EJ. Lifelong physician competence. Journal of the Florida Medical Association. 1980;67:755-765.
Templeton B. Progress report on the Comprehensive Qualifying Evaluation Program. Federation Bulletin. 1980;67:35-38.
Tjosvold D, Fabrey LJ. Motivation for perspective-taking: effects of interdependence on interest in learning others' intentions. Psychological Reports. 1980;46:755-765.
Tjosvold D, Johnson DW, Fabrey LJ. Effects of controversy and defensiveness on cognitive perspective-taking. Psychological Reports. 1980;47:1043-1053.
Vaughan VC. Introduction. In: Bierman CW, Pearlman DS, ed. Allergic Diseases of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1980.
Vaughan VC. Meeting the health needs of children in the 80's. In: Conference Journal. Bryn Mawr PA: Delaware Valley Association for the Education of Young Children; 1980:33-38.
Chase RA. Paper-and-pencil examinations - what they can do and cannot do. Surgery. 1981;89:771-772.
Hubbard JP. A call for action. Medical Teacher. 1981;3:85-86.
Kennedy WB, Kelley PR, Saffran M. Use of NBME examinations to assess retention of basic science knowledge. Journal of Medical Education. 1981;56:162-173.
Saffran M, Kennedy WB, Kelley PR. Use of National Board examinations to estimate retention of biochemistry. Biochemical Education. 1981;9(3):97-99.
Templeton B. Council on Medical Education and Career Development. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1981;134:563-568.
Burg FD, Lloyd JS, Templeton B. Competence in medicine. Medical Teacher. 1982;4:60-64.
Saffran M, Kennedy WB, Kelley PR. Retention of knowledge of pharmacology by U.S. and Canadian medical students. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 1982.
Templeton B, MacDonald M. Use of interactional analysis in assessing physician trainee interpersonal skills. In: Lloyd JS, ed. Evaluation of Noncognitive Skills and Clinical Performance. Chicago IL: American Board of Medical Specialties; 1982:155-167.
Vaughan VC. Priorities in changing times. In: Conference Journal. Philadelphia PA: Delaware Valley Association for the Education of Young Children; 1982:21-24.
Vaughan VC, Ellis EG. Importance of the Primer for pediatric residents and students. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1982;248:2584-2585.
Andrew BJ. The limitations of written examinations for licensure. Federation Bulletin. 1983:35-42.
Carson JD. Challenges to the integrity of the licensing examination process. The Bar Examiner. 1983;52:4-10.
Carson JD. Doctors convicted on criminal charges in connection with licensing examination. Federation Bulletin. 1983;70:200-201.
Case SM, Fabrey LJ, Andrew BJ. Critical clinical procedures: a survey of residents. Research in Medical Education. 1983;22:160-165.
Daeschner C, Templeton B. FLEX task force I update. Federation Bulletin. 1983;70:291-294.
Griffin JB, Hill K, Jones JJ, Keeley KA, Krug R. Evaluating alcoholism and drug abuse knowledge in medical education: a collaborative project. Journal of Medical Education. 1983;58:859-863.
Jewett LS, MacDonald M, Templeton B. Evaluating communication skills of physicians: four methods of measyrement. Research in Medical Education. 1983;22:101-106.
Wesner ME. Test center management. Federation Bulletin. 1983;70:116-122.
Andrew BJ. Implications of computer testing. In: Lloyd JS, ed. Computer Applications in the Evaluation of Physician Competence. Chicago IL: American Board of Medical Specialties; 1984:31-34.
Campbell AB, Glazer DL. Recertification: toward the development of standards for assuring continued competence. Journal of Allied Health. 1984;13:252-262.
Case SM, Fabrey LJ, Andrew BJ. Clinical skills needed during early residency. Resident & Staff Physician. 1984;20:29-35pc.
Erviti VF, Fabrey LJ, Andrew BJ. Computerized medical audit to assess residents' performance in ambulatory care. In: Lloyd JS, ed. Computer Applications in the Evaluation of Physician Competence. Chicago, IL: American Board of Medical Specialties; 1984:95-101.
Fabrey LJ, Case SM, Andrews BJ. Assessment of clinical skills in US medical schools. Journal of Educational Measurement. 1984;59:957-959.
GF Dillon. The new FLEX and the old "75". Federation Bulletin. 1984;71:214-216.
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Mazor K, Holtman MC, Shchukin Y, Mee JM, Katsufrakis PJ. The relationship between direct observation, knowledge, and feedback: results of a national survey. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(suppl 10):63-67.
Melnick DE. Commentary: balancing responsibility to patients and responsibility to aspiring physicians with disabilities. Academic Medicine. 2011;86:674-676.
Norcini JJ, Anderson MB, Bollela V, Burch V, Costa MJ, Duvivier R, Galbraith RM, Hays R, Kent A, Perrott V, Roberts T. Criteria for good assessment: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference. Medical Teacher. 2011;33:206-214.
Raymond MR, Harik P, Clauser BE. The impact of statistically adjusting for rater effects on conditional standard errors of performance ratings. Applied Psychological Measurement. 2011;35:235-246.
Raymond MR, Kahraman N, Swygert KA, Balog KP. Evaluating construct equivalence and criterion-related validity for repeat examinees on a standardized patient examination. Academic Medicine. 2011;86:1253-1259.
Raymond MR, Mee JM, King AM, Haist SA, Winward ML. What new residents do during their initial months of training. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(suppl 10):59-62.
Richmond M, Canavan C, Holtman MC, Katsufrakis PJ. Feasibility of implementing a standardized multisource feedback program in the graduate medical education environment. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2011;3:511-516.
Schuwirth L, Colliver J, Gruppen L, Kreiter C, Mennin S, Onishi H, Pangaro L, Ringsted C, Swanson DB, van Der Vleuten C, Wagner-Menghin M. Research in assessment: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference. Medical Teacher. 2011;33:224-233.
Sinharary S, Haberman S, Wainer H. Do adjusted subscores lack validity? Don’t blame the messenger. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2011;71:789-797.
Wainer H. Value-added models to evaluate teachers: a cry for help. Chance. 2011;24(1):11-13.
Wainer H. The first step toward wisdom. Chance. 2011;24(2):60-61.
Wainer H. How much is tenure worth? Chance. 2011;24(3):54-57.
Wainer H. Uneducated Guesses : Using Evidence to Uncover Misguided Education Policies. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press; 2011.
Wainer H. A remarkable horse: an inquiry into the accuracy of medical predictions. Chance. 2011;24(4):55-57.
Wainer H. The Pleasures of Statistics: The Autobiography of Frederick Mosteller. Book review. Psychometrika. 2011;76:155-157.
Wainer H. Some reflections on data display and evidence. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. 2011;20:8-15.
Wainer H. How should we screen for breast cancer: using evidence to make medical decisions. Significance. 2011;8:28-30.
Wainer H. A profile of Karl G. Joreskog. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. 2011;36:403-412.
Wainer H. Waiting for Achilles. Newark Star Ledger. Newark, NJ; 2011;2012(January 18):Op Ed Essay.
Wainer H. Assessing teachers from student scores: on the viability and fairness of value-added models for STEM Teachers; Op Ed. US News & World Report. 2011(January 18).
Wainer H, Hubert L. A statistical guide for the ethically perplexed. In: Panter AT, Sterba S, ed. Handbook of Ethics in Quantitative Methodology. New York: Routledge; 2011:61-124.
Wainer H, Hubert L. Assessing long-term risk with short-term data. Significance. 2011;8:170-171.
Anderson MB. Introduction; a peer-reviewed collection of reports on innovative approaches to medical education. Medical Education. 2012;46:1101.
Anderson MB. Introduction; a peer-reviewed collection of reports on innovative approaches to medical education. Medical Education. 2012;46:503.
Babcock B, Albano A, Raymond MR. Nominal weights mean equating: a method for very small samples. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2012;72:608-628.
Barberia JA, Gomelle LG, Adams AG, Haist SA. Nurse’s Pocket Drug Guide 2012. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill-Medical; 2012.
Cook R, Wainer H. A century and a half of moral statistics in the United Kingdom: variations on Joseph Fletcher’s thematic maps. Significance. 2012;9(3):31-36.
Dauphinee WD, Anderson MB. Maturation (and déjà vu) comes to the research in medical education program at age 51. Academic Medicine. 2012;87:1307-1309.
Dillon GF. The importance of testing medical students’ knowledge of what Is least likely [letter]. Academic Medicine. 2012;87:1454.
Feinberg RA, Swygert KA, Haist SA, Dillon GF, Murray CT. The impact of postgraduate training on USMLE Step 3 and its computer-based case simulation component. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2012;27:65-70.
Hammer D, Anderson MB, Brunson WD, Grus C, Heun L, Holtman M, Mashima T, McGuinn K, Nunez L, Register S, Ross L, Ruffin A, Frost JG. Defining and measuring construct of interprofessional professionalism. Journal of Allied Health. 2012;41:e49-53.
Hubert L, Wainer H. A Statistical Guide for the Ethically Perplexed. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC; 2012.
Kahraman N, De Champlain AF, Raymond MR. Modeling the psychometric properties of complex performance assessment tasks using confirmatory factor analysis: a multistage model for calibrating tasks. Applied Measurement in Education. 2012;25:79-95.
Raymond MR, Swygert KA, Kahraman N. Measurement precision for repeat examinees on a standardized patient examination. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2012;17:325-337.
Raymond MR, Swygert KA, Kahraman N. Psychometric equivalence of ratings for repeat examinees on a performance assessment for physician licensure. Journal of Educational Measurement. 2012;49:339-361.
Sales D, Sturrock A, Swanson DB. Machine markable knowledge testing. Excellence in Medical Education. 2012;12(3):23-29.
Scoles PV. The significance of significance: commentary on an article by Robert Grunfeld, MD, et al: "An assessment of musculoskeletal knowledge in graduating medical and physician assistant students and implications for musculoskeletal care providers". The Journal of Bone and Joint surgery. American volume. Feb 15 ed. 2012;94:e28.
Sondheimer HM, Anderson MB. Introduction. In: A Snapshot of the New and Developing Medical Schools in the United States and Canada. Washington DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2012:3-6.
Swygert KA, Cuddy MM, Van Zanten M, Haist SA. Gender differences in examinee performance on the Step 2 Clinical Skills(®) data gathering (DG) and patient note (PN) components. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2012;17:557-571.
Wainer H. Cheating: some ways to detect it badly. Chance. 2012;25(3):54-57.
Wainer H. How statistics rescued a damsel in distress. NJEA Review. 2012;85(5):16-19.
Wainer H. Moral statistics and the thematic maps of Joseph Fletcher. Chance. 2012;25(1):43-46.
Wainer H. More statistics: a contribution to one hundred great ideas for higher education. Academic Questions. 2012;25(4):69.
Wainer H. Piano virtuosos and the four-minute mile. Significance. 2012;9(2):28-29.
Wainer H. Review of Erich Lehmann’s Fisher, Neyman and the Creation of Classical Statistics. Journal of Educational Measurement. 2012;49:335-338.
Wainer H. The survival of the fittists. The American Scientist. 2012;100:358-361.
Wainer H. Waiting for Achilles. Chance. 2012;25(4):50-51.
Wainer H. When nothing is not zero: a true saga of missing data, adequate yearly progress, and a Memphis charter school. Chance. 2012;25(2):49-51.
Wainer H, Savage S. McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch (2011). The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Book review. Journal of Educational Measurement. 2012;49:214-219.
Anderson MB. Really good stuff: lessons learned through innovation in medical education. Introduction. Medical Education. 2013;47:513.
Anderson MB. Really good stuff:lessons learned through innovation in medical education. Medical Education. 2013;47:1117-1118.
Baldwin P. On mean-sigma estimators and bias. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology. 2013;66:277-289.
Brown CB, Kahraman N. Exploring psychometric models to enhance standardized patient quality assurance: evaluating standardized patient performance over time. Academic Medicine. 2013;88:866-871.
Chavez AK, Swygert KA, Peitzman SJ, Raymond MR. Within-session score gains for repeat examinees on a standardized patient examination. Academic Medicine. 2013;88:688-692.
Clauser BE, Mee J, Margolis MJ. The effect of data format on integration of performance data into Angoff judgments. International Journal of Testing. 2013;13:65-85.
Cook R, Wainer H. Plotting evidence to affect social policy: guns, murders, life, death, and ignorance in contemporary America. Chance. 2013;26(2):38-44.
Cuddy MM, Swanson DB, Drake RL, Pawlina W. Changes in anatomy instruction and USMLE performance: empirical evidence on the absence of a relationship. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2013;6:3-10.
Dillon GF, Swanson DB, McClintock JC, Gravlee GP. The relationship between the American Board of Anesthesiology Part 1 Certification Examination and the United States Medical Licensing Examination.