Advancing Natural Language Processing in Educational Assessment: Pages 167-182
This chapter discusses the evolution of natural language processing (NLP) approaches to text representation and how different ways of representing text can be utilized for a relatively understudied task in educational assessment – that of predicting item characteristics from item text.
Advancing Natural Language Processing in Educational Assessment: Pages 58-73
This chapter describes INCITE, an NLP-based system for scoring free-text responses. It emphasizes the importance of context and the system’s intended use and explains how each component of the system contributed to its accuracy.
Journal of Applied Technology: Volume 23 - Special Issue 1 - Pages 30-40
The interpretations of test scores in secure, high-stakes environments are dependent on several assumptions, one of which is that examinee responses to items are independent and no enemy items are included on the same forms. This paper documents the development and implementation of a C#-based application that uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML) techniques to produce prioritized predictions of item enemy statuses within a large item bank.
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics
This paper brings together approaches from the fields of NLP and psychometric measurement to address the problem of predicting examinee proficiency from responses to short-answer questions (SAQs).
Academic Medicine: March 2019 - Volume 94 - Issue 3 - p 314-316
The United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) exam uses physician raters to evaluate patient notes written by examinees. In this Invited Commentary, the authors describe the ways in which the Step 2 CS exam could benefit from adopting a computer-assisted scoring approach that combines physician raters’ judgments with computer-generated scores based on natural language processing (NLP).